marine protected areas list


By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America and in furtherance of the purposes of the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (16 U.S.C. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is compiled from multiple sources and is the most comprehensive global dataset on marine and terrestrial protected areas available. Marine Resources: the reef is of economic importance to Belize, supporting the traditional lobster, conch and finfish fisheries and providing incomes for fishermen from coastal communities. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) defines a protected area as: "A clearly defined geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. The total protected site area is 3,697 square kilometres (1,427 sq mi). The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the most comprehensive global database on terrestrial and marine protected areas. By 2006 complete an area system gap analysis at national and regional levels. [84] Marine reserves with "no take zones" are the most effective form of protection. Below is a list of the different levels of protection found within MPAs. The following is the list of marine protected areas in or near the mainland of India: State/ UT’s. Protocols involving protected areas were ratified in 1990. Other restrictions may limit the use of ultrasonic devices like sonar (which may confuse the guidance system of cetaceans), development, construction and the like. Vocabulary From the Florida Keys to Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, pockets of oceans, bays, and estuaries around the world are designated as marine protected areas (MPAs). The UN Council identified the need for countries to collaborate with each other to establish effective regional conservation plans. [5], On 28 October 2016 in Hobart, Australia, the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources agreed to establish the first Antarctic and largest marine protected area in the world encompassing 1.55 million km2 (600,000 sq mi) in the Ross Sea. One alternative to imposing MPAs on an indigenous population is through the use of Indigenous Protected Areas, such as those in Australia. When counted with MPAs of all sizes from many other countries, as of August 2016 there are more than 13,650 MPAs, encompassing 2.07% of the world's oceans, with half of that area – encompassing 1.03% of the world's oceans – receiving complete "no-take" designation.[7]. Taken from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre's Protected Areas Database, a global database managed in collaboration with the IUCN's World Commission on Protected Areas, which houses information on more than 30,000 sites, including more than 3,000 marine protected areas. ), National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C. [2] These marine areas can come in many forms ranging from wildlife refuges to research facilities. In some cases, the areas … A marine protected area (MPA) is a protected area that includes primarily marine environment and biodiversity. Cultural heritage MPAs must also conform to criteria for the National Register for Historic Places. Marine National Monument Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument (Hawaii) Web Site Owner: National Ocean Service, List of National System MPAs - Names and Locations (July 2013), Detailed List of National System MPAs (July 2013), Analysis of National System Marine Protected Areas, Definitions of terms used in List and Summary Table. Four new sites have been designated as Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to give extra security to some of Scotland's most vulnerable species and … There are a total of 45 marine protected areas in the South African EEZ, with a total area of 5% of the waters. In an effort to increase the stock size of gag grouper in the northern Gulf, these MPAs, known as Madison-Swanson and Steamboat Lumps, are closed to all fishing from November 1 to April 30. For example, Apo Island in the Philippines made protected one quarter of their reef, allowing fish to recover, jumpstarting their economy. California’s Marine Protected Area Network. MPAs on the List are those that went through the nomination process, and have been agreed upon by both the MPA Center and the managing agency. Also available for download. The fish expand into the surrounding areas to reduce crowding, increasing the population of unprotected areas. [48], Southeast Asia is a global epicenter for marine diversity. The image below shows the marine sanctuaries of the Californian Coast. Marine Protected Areas are places at sea where environmentally-damaging activities, like certain types of fishing, are restricted. Apo Island Marine Sanctuary, Philippines. 12% of its coral reefs are in MPAs. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are one policy instrument available that have the potential to address several of the pressures on marine biodiversity (Table 2), in particular over-fishing and exploitation and habitat destruction. 10% of marine areas by 2010. 30% of water managed by marine protected areas by 2020. [62] In June 2020, a review led by Richard Benyon MP, stated that nearly 50 areas around the UK coastline should become Highly Protected Marine Areas (HPMAs). [6] Other large MPAs are in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans, in certain exclusive economic zones of Australia and overseas territories of France, the United Kingdom and the United States, with major (990,000 square kilometres (380,000 sq mi) or larger) new or expanded MPAs by these nations since 2012—such as Natural Park of the Coral Sea, Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument, Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Marine Protected Area. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are defined by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as parts of intertidal or subtidal environments, together with their overlying waters, flora and fauna and other features, that have been reserved and protected by … Marine Protected Area. MPAs can be an effective tool to maintain fish populations; see refuge (ecology). Instead the mandate requires an evaluation of current MPAs and creates a public resource on current MPAs.[91]. Thane Creek Flamingo Sanctuary. Examples of Marine Protected areas include, marine reserves, marine sanctuaries, national parks and wildlife refuges. [56], In exchange for some of its national debt being written off, the Seychelles designates two new marine protected areas in the Indian Ocean, covering about 210,000 square kilometres (81,000 sq mi). On March 6, 2009, NOAA and DOI (agencies) published the Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas for public comment. When this occurs, prey populations decrease. World’s flagship marine protected areas gather in milestone conference From 4 to 9 September, managers from the 50 marine sites on UNESCO’s World Heritage List gathered in the momentous setting of the Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve to discuss challenges and solutions toward reaching the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. [21], Filipino communities connect with one another to share information about MPAs, creating a larger network through the social communities' support. Valuable biodiversity saved by … The marine life that provide it — whether it’s fish to eat or whales that fuel tourism economies — must be managed carefully and sustainably. IUCN WCPA, Gland, Switzerland. Some existing and proposed MPAs have been criticized by indigenous populations and their supporters, as impinging on land usage rights. The network covers about 211,000,000 square kilometres (81,000,000 sq mi).[50]. With a total surface area of 640,000 square kilometres (250,000 sq mi), it was the world's largest contiguous marine reserve. As of 2008, the region hosted about 500 MPAs. Towards Networks of Marine Protected Areas. PAD-US is America’s official national inventory of U.S. terrestrial and marine protected areas (List of National Geospatial Data Assets) that are dedicated to the preservation of biological diversity and to other natural, recreation and cultural uses, managed for these purposes through legal or other effective means. [21], These networks are intended to connect individuals and MPAs and promote education and cooperation among various administrations and user groups. They are created by delineating zones with permitted and non-permitted uses within that zone. [83], Coral reef systems have been in decline worldwide. Locations, descriptions, and regulations of Canadas Oceans Act MPAs. On 7 April 1982, the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CAMLR Convention) came into force after discussions began in 1975 between parties of the then-current Antarctic Treaty to limit large-scale exploitation of krill by commercial fisheries. National System MPA Definitions and Criteria; Marine Protected Areas of the United States The World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 called for .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, the establishment of marine protected areas consistent with international laws and based on scientific information, including representative networks by 2012. Governments in the region adopted the Lima convention and action plan in 1981. Can It Be Done? The marine protected area network is still in its infancy. Marine Protected Areas. To effectively conserve marine ecosystems — and provide benefits to the people who depend on them — Conservation International has led the creation of marine protected areas (MPAs) around the world. As of June 2016, approximately 3% of Manx waters were protected as a. Establishing new Marine Protected Areas. In 2005, the Fiji Government committed to manage and finance at least 30% of its inshore waters by 2020. ), National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C. Start Printed Page 34909 Executive Order 13158 of May 26, 2000 Marine Protected Areas. The MLPA Blue Ribbon Task Force and stakeholder and scientific advisory groups ensure that the process uses the science and public participation. These places are given special protections for natural or historic marine resources by local, state, territorial, native, regional, or national authorities. Potential sites that contain important species, habitats or ecosystems that need protection. [78], The following shows a list of countries and their marine protected areas as percentage of their territorial waters (click "show" to expand). This would see the banning of dredging, sewage dumping, drilling, offshore wind-turbine construction and catch-and-release sea fishing. For example, the proposed Chagos Protected Area in the Chagos Islands is contested by Chagossians deported from their homeland in 1965 by the British as part of the creation of the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT). The replenishment zones within the marine protected areas ensure that there are viable populations of commercial species for subsistence and commercial fishing. MPA activities can include consumption fishing, diving and other activities. [25] Emerging or established MPA networks can be found in Australia, Belize, the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Mexico. These places are given special protections for natural or historic marine resources by local, state, territorial, native, regional, or national authorities. NOAA's national marine protected areas center maintains a comprehensive inventory[52] of all 1,600+ MPAs within the US exclusive economic zone. In the UK, there are a few types of Marine Protected Areas. In addition to protecting rare and threatened species and their habitats and The Alaska Department of Fish and Game issued a report on July 18, 2002 with a set of recommendations for a public process for establishing marine protected areas (MPAs) in Alaska. Albert Field Axe Estuary Beachy Head East Bembridge Dart Estuary East of Start Point Foreland Goodwin Sands Inner Bank Otter Estuary Yarmouth to Cowes Purbeck Coast Selsey Bill and the Hounds South of Portland Southborne Rough Studland Bay West of Wight-Barfleur. Fewer than 1% of U.S. waters prohibit all extractive activities.[53]. West Bengal. The MLPA Initiative established a plan to create California's statewide MPA network by 2011 in several steps. Together, they cover 0.8 percent of the ocean. A totally marine area with no significant terrestrial parts. 2008. Meets the definition of an MPA as defined in the Framework. These areas employ two or more protections. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) involve the protective management of natural areas according to pre-defined management objectives. "[16], At the 2004 Convention on Biological Diversity, the agency agreed to use "network" on a global level, while adopting system for national and regional levels. Coral reefs are the best represented. The North Pacific network covers the western coasts of Mexico, Canada, and the U.S. [66][67] In March 2015, the UK announced the creation of a marine reserve around the Pitcairn Islands in the Southern Pacific Ocean to protect its special biodiversity. As of October 2010, approximately 6,800 MPAs had been established, covering 1.17% of global ocean area.  There are currently 437 members of the National System of MPAs. No deployment of fishing gear. "[8][9], This definition is intended to make it more difficult to claim MPA status for regions where exploitation of marine resources occurs. Christie, Patrick, and A.T White. Marine Protected Area Networks or MPA networks have been defined as "A group of MPAs that interact with one another ecologically and/or socially form a network". March 2011. One notable example is the MPA surrounding Apo Island. Marine Protected Areas across Canada . In 2009, the CCAMLR created the first 'high-seas' MPA entirely within international waters over the southern shelf of the South Orkney Islands. Marine protected areas are special places in our ocean. The "Antigua Convention" and an action plan for the north Pacific region were adapted in 2002. "Best practices for improved governance of coral reef marine protected areas." 300-308. [95], "A clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated, and managed, through legal or effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem service and cultural value. 28 pp. Most of the Philippines' MPAs are established to secure protection for its coral reef and sea grass habitats. Participation in the national system does not constrain the ability of the management agency to make management changes such as adding or reducing levels of protection or changing the size of the MPA. protection and management of the marine environment.[65]. Community involvement and related approaches—Community-managed MPAs empower local communities to operate partially or completely independent of the governmental jurisdictions they occupy. Misconceptions about MPAs include the belief that all MPAs are no-take or no-fishing areas. There is often confusion and debate regarding what the term \"marine protected area\" really means. Shallow-water colonies outside these decades-old MPAs are typically very small. List of Marine Protected Areas in India The Marine Protected Area is the place in the ocean where exploitative human activities and interventions are strictly regulated just like in … → The long-term integrity of key coastal ecosystems is maintained. You may... North MPA: You may take salmon (by troll) and crab. The lack of fishing in these areas made them easy to protect, but it also had little positive impact. The protected area will be 234,291 square kilometres (90,460 sq mi), half of which will be closed to fishing. Two networks are under development, the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (a long barrier reef that borders the coast of much of Central America), and the "Islands in the Stream" program (covering the Gulf of Mexico). 20% of the marine ecosystem protected for fishery replenishment by 2010. Another misconception is that most MPAs are federally managed. IMO Assembly Resolution A.927(22), Guidelines for the Designation of Special Areas under MARPOL 73/78 and Guidelines for the Identification and Designation of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (Nov. 29, 2001). The area includes island countries like the Bahamas and Cuba, and the majority of Central America. The member states had to define NATURA 2000 areas at sea in their Exclusive Economic Zone. Category. 29 MPAs covering 18% of state marine area with 243 square kilometres (94 sq mi) at maximum protection. Potential sites that contain important species, habitats or ecosystems that need protection. Print. The Convention for Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (better known as the Cartagena Convention) was established in 1983. Some national targets are listed in the table below[35]. Some people interpret MPAs to mean areas closed to all human activities, while others interpret them as special areas set aside for recreation (e.g., national parks) or to sustain commercial use (e.g., fishery management areas). – United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Decision VII/15[30], The 10% conservation goal is also found in Sustainable Development Goal 14 (which is part of the Convention on Biological Diversity) and which sets this 10% goal to a later date (2020). It is a joint project between the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), managed by UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC).

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